I like pheromone because of their high numbers and large pheromone storage capacity when considered collectively.
Pheromone Trail marking and orientation
Bees returning to the hive orient to the colony odor effluent (Lecomte 1956; Butler et al. 1970), which probably contains pheromones and other odors from many sources within the hive. If the entrance is disturbed, moved, or blocked for several minutes, and then restored to its original condition, the returning foragers that were initially prevented from entering the hive alight on the entrance and remain stationary for a few minutes while exposing the Nassanoff gland, releasing Nassanoff pheromones and fanning. Other returning foragers orient to the fanning workers, alight, and release additional pheromones. Learn more about the best pheromones at http://buy-pheromones.org and http://pheromones-planet.com/mens-pheromones/.
Honey bees do not have the elaborate trail marking systems of ants, but there is evidence of pheromone trails at the hive entrance. Lecomte (1956) demonstrated a trail marking pheromone by rotating a hive 180 degrees, after which returning foragers alighted at the original entrance location, then walked around the hive to the relocated entrance in response to Nassanoff pheromones released by other foragers. A narrow trail of a stable pheromone /was deposited by the tarsi and this trail was followed by other workers. The pheromone is probably produced by the Arnhart’s glands located on the tarsal extremities (Chauvin 1962). The existence of a trail-marking pheromone was confirmed by Butler et al. (1969), who called it ‘footprint substance’. Learn more at http://pheromones-4u.com.
Other honey bee pheromones
The potential for utilization of pheromones in the honey bee colony is much greater than the published research indicates, even though Pain (1973) lists 31 phe- romones believed to exist, of which 13 have been identified. For example, it is likely that pheromones are involved in brood feeding. Other pheromones produced by developing brood may induce incubation and clustering behavior. Evidence for incubation pheromones has been found for two species of Bombus (Heinrich I973). Drone-produced pheromones may function in caste discrimination within the hive. There may be other worker pheromones involved in communication from worker to worker inside the hive. In summary, our sketchy knowledge of honey bee phero- mones, combined with a lack of understanding of the neurophysiology of the sensory system, indicate that that the task of elucidating pheromonal mechanisms has just begun.
Hymenopterans are richly endowed with exocrine glands and it has become quite apparent that these structures constitute some of the most versatile biosynthetic tissues which are encountered in animals. A dazzling array of pheromones have been identified in the secretions of social insects testifying to the major use of volatile information—bearing agents as behavioral regulators. The widespread utilization of pheromones by these insects reﬂects their programmed responsiveness to these selective stimuli because of the great acuity and discriminatory elegance of their olfactory chemoreceptors. Rapid processing of information encoded in phero- monal stimuli appears to be a hallmark of social insects which guarantees the viability of a communicative system predicated primarily on olfactory triggers. In a sense, the variegated aspects of chemical communication in the Hymenoptera mirror many of the salient characteristics that have enabled these insects to develop the societal complexity so often identiﬁed with species of ants, bees, and wasps. Although our present knowledge of the chemistry of hymenopterous pheromones is extremely limited, it is nevertheless worthwhile to examine the mainstream of pheromonal sociality as a function of some of the speciﬁc chemicals regulating many of the interactions of these insects.