Pheromone researchers found that if a person relocates, his or her attitude and demeanor will adapt to meet the social environment of the new home. This means that a happy-go-lucky southerner might experience a change in personality with a move to the north and vice versa.
In searching for a reason behind climate-controlled personality differences, Pennebaker points to the fact that northerners wear more clothing and are less able to display body language or read the body language of their friends and neighbors, which may lead to hindered social skills. He also posits that because people living in cold places are forced to stay indoors more often than their warm-weather peers, they naturally become less social.
What Are Pheromones
Pheromones, which are chemical factors secreted by both men and women from their genital regions, armpits, and navels, are available as scented or unscented products for both sexes. These products are touted to provide benefits like increased sexual attraction, romantic passion, and confidence in one’s self and in the relationship. The questions then are: Is the existence of human pheromones a proven scientific fact in the first place? Are the claims related to these chemical factors true?
How Pheromones Work
While entomologists may find all of this fascinating, for the rest of the world the interest in pheromones is on their impact between humans. While most advertisements involving pheromones focus on sexual attraction, it is not beyond reason to say that people are interested in pheromones for all of the ways in which they can be used to influence behaviors, feelings, and actions.
From the first studies on pheromones and mammals through modern-day findings, it was initially thought that pheromones work through the vomeronasal organ. The vomeronasal organ is a chemosensory organ that is found within the nasal septum, at its base. There is some debate about the interaction of the vomeronasal organ in adults, but its mere existence has formed the foundation for much of the human pheromone research. Other researchers have determined that they do not need an operable vomeronasal organ to verify findings that pheromones have an effect on humans. For these researchers, observing the effect is enough to justify their publishing study findings. Understanding how the effects are formed, that is to them, the subject for future studies.
Do Pheromones Work in Humans?
Many people come to this website looking for information on woman attracting pheromones. There are many questions to be asked about these chemical love scents; do they really work? Will people know I am wearing them? Are all women attracted to men wearing these pheromones? This article aims to answer some of these questions surrounding the mysterious attractant pheromones.
According to scientists, there is no doubt whether pheromones play a large role in attracting members of the opposite sex. Pheromones exist in almost all animals on the planet but the ones we are particularly interested in are the so-called sex pheromones. These pheromones are said to drive women mad with lust but is there any merit to this statement?
In order to answer this question, we must turn to science. For something to be true it must be proven in an empirical manner. Scientists have shown that women that have been put in an environment containing a large number of pheromones go through physical and mental changes. Upon careful analysis, the scientists showed that the changes they went through were almost identical to the changes a woman has when she is attracted to a man, some reactions showed women almost reaching what could be called an orgasmic state merely by being in contact with pheromones.
It must be noted that the existence of these chemical factors in animals like bees, pigs, and dogs was an established fact in the scientific community as early as the 1970s. These were categorized into alarm, aggregation, sex and territorial factors, to name a few examples, with each one playing different yet complementary roles in the animal’s life. Many industries even used animal factors for several purposes such as in the case of pest control.
Studies in the 1980s
It was only in the 1980s, however, when the existence of human pheromones was established through several scientific studies. Many of these studies were made under the co-direction of Dr. Winnifred Cutler, a well-known biologist and the president/founder of the Athena Institute, a biomedical research facility. To this day, Dr. Cutler is an active researcher in the science, applications, and benefits of pheromones in human sexual attraction, among other areas affected by these chemical factors.
At the time of the discovery of these chemical factors in humans, Dr. Cutler was a research scholar working for the University of Pennsylvania Medical School’s Ob/Gynecology Department. She was part of a team of researchers looking into the existence of human pheromones and how these influence human behavior.
Findings from these scientific studies were subsequently published in mainstream publications, both in the conventional media like newspapers and in online sites. These publications included Tome Magazine, Washington Post, Newsweek, CNN Online, USA Today and BBC News, all in the year 1986. In the same year, Dr. Cutler established the Athena Institute to further explore the science behind pheromones and their practical applications in the real world.
Dr. Cutler’s Pheromone Discovery
Until the present day, Dr. Cutler publishes her research studies on a wide variety of topics including but not limited to sexual attraction and sexual behaviors between the sexes, female fertility, and reproductive health. Her studies have been replicated by other researchers with similar results. It must also be noted that Dr. Cutler was instrumental in synthesizing female pheromones. The results were released in 1993, which resulted in the pheromone-infused products being sold on the site.
With the publication of the results of the studies conducted by the Athena Institute, mainstream publications expectedly had reservations about human pheromones. One of these publications – ABC News – conducted their own informal study on the effects of the Athena Pheromones in relation to physical attraction.
In the ABC program 20/20, the staff wanted to test the efficacy of the pheromone-infused potions in helping individuals find romance. Two sets of twins – male and female – in their 20s were sent to a speed-dating event with one twin in each set receiving a good spray of Dr. Cutler’s Athena Pheromones while the other twin had plain witch hazel. No one knew what he/she received, thus, making it a blind test.
The staff, however, knew that Sarah and Dave were sprayed with the chemical factors while Bridget and Paul were provided with the plain witch hazel. Both sets of twins then went on the dates with each one lasting 5 minutes. At the end of the date, these daters filled out a form stating who they would like to see again after the speed-dating event.
The results: Nine men wanted to date Sarah again while only five men wanted the same thing with Bridget. As for Dave, ten women were interested in him while only six stated their interest in Paul.
The conclusion: Athena Pheromones does work!
Secondary Pheromone Studies
Subsequent to the above-referenced studies a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience in 2007 connected the smelling of androstadienone, a pheromone found in male sweat, a direct effect on producing and maintaining higher levels of cortisol in women. While increases cortisol levels are not directly associated with the attraction of arousal, it does show the interrelationship between the male pheromone and the female response. This response has now been proven to have an impact on the endocrine balance of others, which can lead to enhanced or elevated mood.
This connection between the smell of a pheromone and the hormonal effects on the opposite sex has lead researchers to further validate the connections between pheromones and attraction, intimacy, and arousal. There has been additional research that has made preliminary connections between sexual attraction and the linkages between that attraction within same-sex and opposite-sex relationships. These findings are preliminary, but because the study was able to isolate variables as distinct as homo and heterosexual attraction the researchers were, in fact, able to isolate pheromones and prove their impact on the attraction between all types of relationships, hetero and homosexual alike.
Studies done at Harvard University showed that electrical impulses did occur in the area where the VNO is located in humans upon been administered pheromones. In women, these reactions were strongest when the pheromone androstadienone was introduced. Androstadienone is a testosterone-related pheromone found in male sweat. A calming effect was also noted in almost all participants of the study.
Although humans do not a fully functioning VNO in the classical sense recent evidence shows that pheromones are being processed by the normal olfactory channels. Many pheromones have been found in nature that does not depend on a VNO to function and there have been documented cases of definite reactions to pheromones in animals without a VNO. In one study it was found that mice detect a certain pheromone through a dense cluster of nerves at the tip of the nose and not the VNO.
This behavior though is not unique to animals. Ivanka Savic a neuroscientist from Sweden recently showed in a brain imaging scan experiment that androstadienone directly stimulates an area of the brain that is a controller of sexual stimulation.
Many scientists are now saying that even though you can generate the symptoms of sexual excitement in humans that it does not necessarily mean they will become sexually excited. Whether or not pheromones actually work in humans is still debatable and the truth will not be known until the scientific community embrace the project objectively. leaving aside long-standing bias and preconceptions.